heo6886
25-08-21 0 Hits



    Music must first be defined and distinguished from speech, and from animal and bird cries. We discuss the stages of hominid anatomy that permit music to

be perceived and created, with the likelihood of both Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens both being capable. The earlier hominid ability to emit sounds

of variable pitch with some meaning shows that music at its simplest level must have predated speech. The possibilities of anthropoid motor impulse suggest

that rhythm may have preceded melody, though full control of rhythm may well not have come any earlier than the perception of music above. There are four

evident purposes for music: dance, ritual, entertainment personal, and communal, and above all social cohesion, again on both personal and communal levels.

We then proceed to how outdoor musical instrument began, with a brief survey of the

surviving examples from the Mousterian period onward, including the possible Neanderthal evidence and the extent to which they showed “artistic” potential

in other fields. We warn that our performance on replicas of surviving instruments may bear little or no resemblance to that of the original players. We

continue with how later instruments, strings, and skin-drums began and developed into instruments we know in worldwide cultures today. The sound of music is

then discussed, scales and intervals, and the lack of any consistency of consonant tonality around the world. This is followed by iconographic evidence of

the instruments of later antiquity into the European Middle Ages, and finally, the history of public performance, again from the possibilities of early

humanity into more modern times. This paper draws the ethnomusicological perspective on the entire development of music, instruments, and performance, from

the times of H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens into those of modern musical history, and it is written with the deliberate intention of informing readers

who are without special education in music, and providing necessary information for inquiries into the origin of music by cognitive scientists.


    But even those elementary questions are a step too far, because first we have to ask “What is music?” and this is a question that is almost impossible

to answer. Your idea of music may be very different from mine, and our next-door neighbor’s will almost certainly be different again. Each of us can only

answer for ourselves.


    Mine is that it is “Sound that conveys emotion.”


    We can probably most of us agree that it is sound; yes, silence is a part of that sound, but can there be any music without sound of some sort? For me,

that sound has to do something—it cannot just be random noises meaning nothing. There must be some purpose to it, so I use the phrase “that conveys

emotion.” What that emotion may be is largely irrelevant to the definition; there is an infinite range of possibilities. An obvious one is pleasure. But

equally another could be fear or revulsion.


    How do we distinguish that sound from speech, for speech can also convey emotion? It would seem that musical sound must have some sort of controlled

variation of pitch, controlled because speech can also vary in pitch, especially when under overt emotion. So music should also have some element of rhythm,

at least of pattern. But so has the recital of a sonnet, and this is why I said above that the question of “What is music?” is impossible to answer.

Perhaps the answer is that each of us in our own way can say “Yes, this is music,” and “No, that is speech.”


    Must the sound be organized? I have thought that it must be, and yet an unorganized series of sounds can create a sense of fear or of warning. Here,

again, I must insert a personal explanation: I am what is called an ethno-organologist; my work is the study of musical

tubular musical instrument (organology) and worldwide (hence the

ethno-, as in ethnomusicology, the study of music worldwide). So to take just one example of an instrument, the ratchet or rattle, a blade, usually of wood,

striking against the teeth of a cogwheel as the blade rotates round the handle that holds the cogwheel. This instrument is used by crowds at sporting matches

of all sorts; it is used by farmers to scare the birds from the crops; it was and still is used by the Roman Catholic church in Holy Week when the bells “go

to Rome to be blessed” (they do not of course actually go but they are silenced for that week); it was scored by Beethoven to represent musketry in his so-

called Battle Symphony, a work more formally called Wellingtons Sieg oder die Schlacht bei Vittoria, Op.91, that was written originally for Maelzel’s giant

musical box, the Panharmonicon. Beethoven also scored it out for live performance by orchestras and it is now often heard in our concert halls “with cannon

and mortar effects” to attract people to popular concerts. And it was also, during the Second World War, used in Britain by Air-Raid Precaution wardens to

warn of a gas attack, thus producing an emotion of fear. If it was scored by Beethoven, it must be regarded as a musical instrument, and there are many other

noise-makers that, like it, which must be regarded as musical instruments.


    And so, to return to our definition of music, organization may be regarded as desirable for musical sound, but that it cannot be deemed essential, and

thus my definition remains “Sound that conveys emotion.”


    But then another question arises: is music only ours? We can, I think, now agree that two elements of music are melody, i.e., variation of pitch, plus

rhythmic impulse. But almost all animals can produce sounds that vary in pitch, and every animal has a heart beat. Can we regard bird song as music? It

certainly conveys musical pleasure for us, it is copied musically (Beethoven again, in his Pastoral Symphony, no.6, op. 68, and in many works by other

composers), and it conveys distinct signals for that bird and for other birds and, as a warning, for other animals also. Animal cries also convey signals,

and both birds and animals have been observed moving apparently rhythmically. But here, we, as musicologists and ethnomusicologists alike, are generally

agreed to ignore bird song, animal cries, and rhythmic movement as music even if, later, we may regard it as important when we are discussing origins below.

We ignore these sounds, partly because they seem only to be signals, for example alarms etc, or “this is my territory,” and partly, although they are

frequently parts of a mating display, this does not seem to impinge on society as a whole, a feature that, as we shall see, can be of prime importance in

human music. Perhaps, too, we should admit to a prejudice: that we are human and animals are not…


    So now, we can turn to the questions of vocalization versus motor impulse: which came first, singing or percussive rhythms? At least we can have no doubt

whatsoever that for melody, singing must long have preceded instrumental performance, but did physical movement have the accompaniment of hand- or body-

clapping and perhaps its amplification with clappers of sticks or stones, and which of them came first?


    Here, we turn first to the study of the potentials of the human body. There is a large literature on this, but it has recently been summarized by Iain

Morley in his The Prehistory of Music (Morley, 2013). So far as vocalization is concerned, at what point in our evolution was the vocal tract able to control

the production of a range of musical pitch? For although my initial definition of music did not include the question of pitch, nor of rhythm, once we begin

to discuss and amplify our ideas of music, one or other of these, does seem to be an essential—a single sound with no variation of pitch nor with any

variation in time can hardly be described as musical.


    All animals have the ability to produce sounds, and most of these sounds have meanings, at least to their ears. Surely, this is true also of the earliest

hominims. If a mother emits sounds to soothe a baby, and if such sound inflects somewhat in pitch, however vaguely, is this song? An ethnomusicologist, those

who study the music of exotic peoples, would probably say “yes,” while trying to analyze and record the pitches concerned. A biologist would also regard

mother–infant vocalizations as prototypical of music (Fitch, 2006). There are peoples (or have been before the ever-contaminating influence of the

electronic profusion of musical reproduction) whose music has consisted only of two or three pitches, and those pitches not always consistent, and these have

always been accepted as music by ethnomusicologists. So we have to admit that vocal music of some sort may have existed from the earliest traces of humanity,

long before the proper anatomical and physiological developments enabled the use of both speech and what we might call “music proper,” with control and

appreciation of pitch.


    In this context, it is clear also that “music” in this earliest form must surely have preceded speech. The ability to produce something melodic, a

murmuration of sound, something between humming and crooning to a baby, must have long preceded the ability to form the consonants and vowels that are the

essential constituents of speech. A meaning, yes: “Mama looks after you, darling,” “Oy, look out!” and other non-verbal signals convey meaning, but they

are not speech.


    The possibilities of motor impulse are also complex. Here, again, we need to look at the animal kingdom. Both animals and birds have been observed making

movements that, if they were humans, would certainly be described as dance, especially for courtship, but also, with the higher apes in groups. Accompaniment

for the latter can include foot-slapping, making more sound than is necessary just for locomotion, and also body-slapping (Williams, 1967). Can we regard

such sounds as music? If they were humans, yes without doubt. So how far back in the evolutionary tree can we suggest that motor impulse and its sonorous

accompaniment might go? I have already postulated in my Origins and Development of xylophone musical instrument (Montagu, 2007, p. 1) that this could go back as far as the earliest flint tools, that striking two

stones together as a rhythmic accompaniment to movement might have produced the first flakes that were used as tools, or alternatively that interaction

between two or more flint-knappers may have led to rhythms and counter-rhythms, such as we still hear between smiths and mortar-and-pestle millers of grains

and coffee beans. This, of course, was kite-flying rather than a wholly serious suggestion, but the possibilities remain. At what stage did a hominim realize

that it could make more sound, or could alleviate painful palms, by striking two sticks or stones together, rather than by simple clapping? Again we turn to

Morley and to the capability of the physiological and neurological expression of rhythm.


    The physiological must be presumed from the above animal observations. The neurological would again, at its simplest, seem to be pre-human. There is

plenty of evidence for gorillas drumming their chests and for chimpanzees to move rhythmically in groups. However, apes’ capacity for keeping steady rhythm

is very limited (Geissmann, 2000), suggesting that it constitutes a later evolutionary development in hominins. Perceptions of more detailed appreciation of

rhythm, particularly of rhythmic variation, can only be hypothesized by studies of modern humans, especially of course of infantile behavior and perception.


    From all this, it would seem that motor impulse, leading to rhythmic music and to dance could be at least as early as the simplest vocal inflection of

sounds. Indeed, it could be earlier. We said above that animals have hearts, and certainly, all anthropoids have a heartbeat slow enough, and perceptible

enough, to form some basis for rhythmic movement at a reasonable speed. Could this have been a basis for rhythmic movement such as we have just mentioned?

This can only be a hypothesis, for there is no way to check it, but it does seem to me that almost all creatures seem to have an innate tendency to move

together in the same rhythm when moving in groups, and this without any audible signal, so that some form of rhythmic movement may have preceded

vocalization.


    But Why Does Music Develop from Such Beginnings? What is the Purpose of Music?


    There are four obvious purposes: dance, personal or communal entertainment, communication, and ritual.


    Seemingly more important than these fairly obvious reasons for why music developed is one for why music began in the first place. This is something that

Steven Mithen mentions again and again in his book, The Singing Neanderthals (Mithen, 2005): that music is not only cohesive on society but almost adhesive.

Music leads to bonding, bonding between mother and child, bonding between groups who are working together or who are together for any other purpose. Work

songs are a cohesive element in most pre-industrial societies, for they mean that everyone of the group moves together and thus increases the force of their

work. Even today “Music while you Work” has a strong element of keeping workers happy when doing repetitive and otherwise boring work. Dancing or singing

together before a hunt or warfare binds the participants into a cohesive group, and we all know how walking or marching in step helps to keep one going. It

is even suggested that it was music, in causing such bonding, that created not only the family but society itself, bringing individuals together who might

otherwise have led solitary lives, scattered at random over the landscape.


    Thus, it may be that the whole purpose of music was cohesion, cohesion between parent and child, cohesion between father and mother, cohesion between one

family and the next, and thus the creation of the whole organization of society.


    Much of this above can only be theoretical—we know of much of its existence in our own time but we have no way of estimating its antiquity other than by

the often-derided “evidence” of the anthropological records of isolated, pre-literate peoples. So let us now turn to the hard evidence of early musical

practice, that of the surviving musical instruments.1


    This can only be comparatively late in time, for it would seem to be obvious that sound makers of soft vegetal origin should have preceded those of

harder materials that are more difficult to work, whereas it is only the hard materials that can survive through the millennia. Surely natural materials such

as grasses, reeds, and wood preceded bone? That this is so is strongly supported by the advanced state of many early bone pipes—the makers clearly knew

exactly what they were doing in making musical instruments, with years or generations of experiment behind them on the softer materials. For example, some

end-blown and notch-blown flutes, the earliest undoubted ones that we have, from Geissenkl?sterle and Hohle Fels in Swabia, Germany, made from swan, vulture

wing (radius) bones, and ivory in the earliest Aurignacian period (between 43,000 and 39,000 years BP), have their fingerholes recessed by thinning an area

around the hole to ensure an airtight seal when the finger closes them. This can only be the result of long experience of flute making.


    So how did tembos musical instrument begin? First a warning:

with archeological material, we have what has been found; we do not have what has not been found. A site can be found and excavated, but if another site has

not been found, then it will not have been excavated. Thus, absence of material does not mean that it did not exist, only that it has not been found yet.

Geography is relevant too. Archeology has been a much older science in Europe than elsewhere, so that most of our evidence is European, whereas in Africa,

where all species of Homo seem to have originated, site archeology is in its infancy. Also, we have much evidence of bone pipes simply because a piece of

bone with a number of holes along its length is fairly obviously a probable musical instrument, whereas how can we tell whether some bone tubes without

fingerholes might have been held together as panpipes? Or whether a number of pieces of bone found together might or might not have been struck together as

idiophones? We shall find one complex of these later on here which certainly were instruments. And what about bullroarers, those blades of bone, with a hole

or a constriction at one end for a cord, which were whirled around the player’s head to create a noise-like thunder or the bellowing of a bull, or if small

and whirled faster sounded like the scream of a devil? We have many such bones, but how many were bullroarers, how many were used for some other purpose?


    So how did pipes begin? Did someone hear the wind whistle over the top of a broken reed and then try to emulate that sound with his own breath? Did he or

his successors eventually realize that a shorter piece of reed produced a higher pitch and a longer segment a lower one? Did he ever combine these into a

group of tubes, either disjunctly, each played by a separate player, as among the Venda of South Africa and in Lithuania, or conjointly lashed together to

form a panpipe for a single player? Did, over the generations, someone find that these grouped pipes could be replaced with a single tube by boring holes in

it, with each hole representing the length of one of that group? All this is speculation, of course, but something like it must have happened.


    Or were instruments first made to imitate cries? The idea of the hunting lure, the device to imitate an animal’s cry and so lure it within reach, is of

unknown age. Or were they first made to imitate the animal in a ritual to call for the success of tomorrow’s hunt? Some cries can be imitated by the mouth;

others need a tool, a short piece of cane, bits of reed or grass or bone blown across the end like a key or a pen-top. Others are made from a piece of bark

held between the tongue and the lip (I have heard a credit card used in this way!). The piece of cane or bone would only produce a single sound, but the

bark, or in Romania a carp scale, can produce the most beautiful music as well as being used as a hunting call. The softer materials will not have survived

and with the many small segments of bone that we have, there is no way to tell whether they might have been used in this way or whether they are merely the

detritus from the dining table.


    This bone does raise the whole question of whether H. neanderthalensis knew of or practised music in any form. For rhythm, we can only say surely, as

above—if earlier hominids could have, so could H. neanderthalensis. Could they have sung? A critical anatomical feature is the position of the larynx

(Morley, 2013, 135ff); the lower the larynx in the throat the longer the vocal cords and thus the greater flexibility of pitch variation and of vowel sounds

(to put it at its simplest). It would seem to have been that with H. heidelbergensis and its successors that the larynx was lower and thus that singing, as

distinct from humming, could have been possible, but “seems to have been” is necessary because, as is so often, this is still the subject of controversy.

However, it does seem fairly clear that H. neanderthalensis could indeed have sung. It follows, too, that while the Divje Babe “pipe” may or may not have

been an instrument, others may yet be found that were ensemble musical

instrument
. There is evidence that the Neanderthals had at least artistic sensibilities, for there are bones with scratch marks on them that may have

been some form of art, and certainly there is a number of small pierced objects, pieces of shell, animal teeth, and so forth, found in various excavations

that can only have served as beads for a necklace or other ornamentation – or just possibly as rattles. There have also been found pieces of pigments of

various colors, some of them showing wear marks and thus that they had been used to color something, and at least one that had been shaped into the form of a

crayon, indicating that some reasonably delicate pigmentation had been desired. Burials have been found, with some small deposits of grave goods, though

whether these reveal sensibilities or forms of ritual or belief, we cannot know (D’Errico et al., 2003, 19ff). There have also been found many bone awls,

including some very delicate ones which, we may presume, had been used to pierce skins so that they could be sewn together. All this leads us to the

conclusion that the Neanderthals had at least some artistic and other feelings, were capable of some musical practices, even if only vocal, and were clothed,

rather than being the grunting, naked savages that have been assumed in the past.

>http://www.deatsmusic.com/

  Send Message

Related ads

Love problem solution by astrologer in usa +91-8302018018

->> Hi i am astrologer any problem solution.... website…>> https://lovebreakupproblemsolution.in :-love problem solution :-husband wife dispute problem solution :-girl love problem solution :-breakup love problem solution :-family problem solution…

What is Marble and how is it formed?

What is Marble and how is it formed?     Marble is a rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, with the maximum concentration of calcite or dolomite. Marble begins life as sedimentary rock known as limestone, which is a soft stone made…

Lost love spells that work fast - powerful voodoo Love spell caster +27789456728 in Canada,Australia,Uk,Usa

Powerful love spells that work fast +27789456728 in Canada,Australia,Uk,Usa MAKE HIM/HER LOVE you and you alone. You love someone but this isn’t mutual? Don’t wait for the deluge and make him or her love you now. This service will create a great alchemy…

DR GUGU +27639913801 SAFE ABORTION PILLS IN PORT SHEPSTONE. PORT EDWARD. MOOI RIVER. STANGER

Women`s Clinic is an expert in Abortion, Sexual problems, a nd reproductive health .It is therefore among the leadingWomen's Abortion Clinic in South Africa with an experience of over 10 years Specializing in Medical Abortions which is a safe and…

Divorce problem solution by astrologer in mumbai +91-8302018018

->> Hi i am astrologer any problem solution.... website…>> https://lovebreakupproblemsolution.in :-love problem solution :-husband wife dispute problem solution :-girl love problem solution :-breakup love problem solution :-family problem solution…

Cheap Low Rate Call Girls In Rajendra Place|-9999239489 Delhi Ncr

Call Girls In Delhi Call Deepak:- +91-–9999239489 Book Our Escort & Call girl Service if You Want any Special Position or any Special Request You Can Directly ask to our Escorts And Independent Call Girls and They would not Deny Your Command or Request…

Powerful love spells for lover+27606842758,swaziland,malawi,angola,zimbabwe.

Are you in a long distance relationship worried of how to keep your relationship? Do you get into Love moods alone without seeing your partner and wish he was around? Are you worried that your partner might find someone new in his life due to the…

Call Girls In Gurgaon 9599538384 Escorts ServiCe In Delhi Ncr

Call Girls In Gurgaon 9599538384 Door Step Delivery Top Quality Full Educated and Full Cooperative Independent Girls Escort ServiCes In All Over Delhi, Gurgaon, Faridabad, Noida, Ghaziabad I Have Extremely Beautiful Broad Minded Cute Sexy & Hot Call…

Italy husband and wife problem, Black magick removal online, Online istikhara, manpasand shadi, kala jadu, Online shadi ka wazifa

Syed Bahadar Ali Shah +923009729485 Manpasand Shadi, Manpasand shadi UK, Manpasand shadi ka taweez, Manpasand shadi ka wazifa, Manpasand shadi ki dua, Man Pasand shadi UK, Free Online istikhara, Inami possibility, Kala jadu ka taweez, Kala jadu ka toor,…

DR GUGU +27639913801 SAFE ABORTION PILLS IN NEWCASTLE. LADYSMITH. ULUNDI. BERGVILLE

Women`s Clinic is an expert in Abortion, Sexual problems, a nd reproductive health .It is therefore among the leadingWomen's Abortion Clinic in South Africa with an experience of over 10 years Specializing in Medical Abortions which is a safe and…

09910636797 Whatsapp Phone Sex Video Calling Service Available

09910636797 HI SIR I’M SEX CHAT GIRL LAKSHMI ONLY PHONE CAM LIVE VIDEO SEX FULL OPEN BODY NUDE WITH FACE FINGERING FULL SETISFECTION FULL ENJOYING AVAILABLE ANY 24HOURS CALL ON WHAT’S APP DETAILS 1HOUR VIDEO CALL 3000 1HOUR VIDEO SEX 2000 1HOUR…

Hello Sir I Am Mr Kavin All Delhi Ncr Escort Service Provide

Same Number Whatsapp Me 9899985641 Just Now available 24×7 Call Girls in Delhi offer both In and Out Call Escorts Service facilities in all over Delhi. We’ve expert call girls models from all categories who specializes in Satisfy you every way. Our Delhi…

Must Win divine Court Case Spells Call +27785149508

Court case spells to win any legal matter & stay out of jail. Legal spells to influence court verdict in your favor. Spells to get a court case dismissed or freeze a court. Get justice, fix your legal matters, get child custody & make the judge rule in…

{{@}}Elite Best bring back lost love spells casting black talisman +27784115746 pay after result+256789125443 in africa monaco dubai Kuwait Europ

{{@}}Elite Best bring back lost love spells casting black talisman +27784115746 pay after result+256789125443 in africa monaco dubai Kuwait Europ Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Revenge spells Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Indiana, Kentucky,…

Call Girls In Noida 8800861635 Escorts ServiCe In Delhi Ncr

Call Girls In Noida 8800861635 Door Step Delivery Top Quality Full Educated and Full Cooperative Independent Girls Escort ServiCes In All Over Delhi, Gurgaon, Faridabad, Noida, Ghaziabad I Have Extremely Beautiful Broad Minded Cute Sexy & Hot Call Girls…

Fire up Your Mind with Delhi Call Girls

Hey; I am priya from Delhi Escorts service. I am an enormous and vivacious babe who will able to cross all possible limits of sex, and offer your limitless and timeless lovemaking session. If you are tired of watching XXX videos and pleasing yourself…

+91-9999239489 Call Girls In Mahipalpur short 1500 night 6000

Delhi NcR Call Girls In Delhi Call Deepak:- +91-–9999239489 Book Our Escort & Call girl Service if You Want any Special Position or any Special Request You Can Directly ask to our Escorts And Independent Call Girls and They would not Deny Your Command or…

Adult Toys In bangalore | Call: +91 7058409242

Want the most skin-friendly products for bettering your physical bond? Well, you have stepped in the right place as our online store will bring you a wide range of Adult Toys In Bangalore for better health and happiness. Just visit our online store and…

ISIPINGOQ@top OPTION approved Abortion Pills +27835179056 in durban soweto springs mayfair benoni

ISIPINGOQ@top OPTION approved Abortion Pills +27835179056 in durban soweto springs mayfair benoni

Bandages sense infections, change color, treat infection

 In what reads like science fiction, a new study published in the journal ACS Central Science reports the development of bandages that detect the presence of bacteria in wounds and change color, depending on whether they are drug-sensitive or…

DR SANELE 0737419104 SAFE ABORTION CLINIC IN QUEENSTOWN, KING WILLIAMSTOWN, PEDDIE

Women`s Clinic is an expert in Abortion, Sexual problems, a nd reproductive health .It is therefore among the leadingWomen's Abortion Clinic in South Africa with an experience of over 10 years Specializing in Medical Abortions which is a safe and…

Call Girls In Noida 8800861635 Escorts ServiCe In Delhi Ncr

Call Girls In Noida 8800861635 Door Step Delivery Top Quality Full Educated and Full Cooperative Independent Girls Escort ServiCes In All Over Delhi, Gurgaon, Faridabad, Noida, Ghaziabad I Have Extremely Beautiful Broad Minded Cute Sexy & Hot Call Girls…

FULL SEX SERVICE PROVIDE WOMEN looking MEN [78388/92339] at Majnu Ka Tella

CALL AVISHEK : ✤ ✥ ✦ 7838892339 ✤ ✥ ✦ Bookings Opens Now Excellent High profile Independent Female Model VIP High Class And Top Class Escorts Service with us will be Best part in your Life ever. ALL HOME/HOTEL DELIVERY SERVICE DOORSTEP SERVICE IN/CALL &…

CALL GIRLS IN DELHI 9711455534 ESCORT SERVICE IN DELHI delhi-

9711455534 Call 24/7 Call Rubi Short 5000/- Full Night 12000/- Delhi Escort Service Call Girls In Delhi Whatspp me Call Poonam We Have Provide Top-Class Escorts Service in Delhi, I Have Extremely Beautiful Broad Minded Cute Sexy & Hot Call Girls and…

What Is a Lock Solenoid?

Electronic door locks are a way to replace keys or to add additional automation features, like remote locking or unlocking. Although most commonly found on cars, many cutting-edge security providers are offering electronic door locks for homes and…

WHAT ARE THE PARTS OF A CAR?

From the steering system to the front and rear suspension, a gas-powered vehicle is filled with a host of parts that come together to power your car, truck or SUV down the road. While it may feel like a foreign language, having a working understanding of…

15 Ways To Learn Weight Loss Effectively

Advanced Keto 1500 can take care of the example in that case. I should point out that you should be using Advanced Keto 1500. It seems that common scenarios have made Keto 1500 undesirable. Leaving that aside, Advanced Keto 1500 is more than just this. I…

Roll forming of a high strength aluminum tube

The presented paper provides a modelling strategy for roll forming of a high strength aluminum alloy tube. Roll forming allows the cost-effective production of large quantities of long profiles. Forming of high strength aluminum brings challenges like…

Can ringing in the ears be cured?

The tinnitus, also known as tinnitus (when the sound is high) and tinnitus (when sound is serious), is a perception of sound similar to a ringing in the ears in the absence of a cause or source external to produce it, which can appear acutely or…

Why You've Got Little to No Airflow From One Air Vent

  So, you turned on your heating and cooling system, and you noticed something strange: one of your rooms isn’t heating or cooling properly.     To your dismay, you noticed that there’s little to no air coming out of the supply air vent opening! You…

HOW TO RETURN LOST LOVER ON AN EX LOVER IN 24 HOURS

Quick Witchcraft Love spells (Austria) Call On +27(68)2010200 True Love Spells That Really Work IN Krugersdorp- Carltonville- Sasolburg- Vanderbijlpark- Vereenining- Bloemfontein Powerful spell to return lover . An individual should not lie concerning the…

LOVE MARRIAGE PROBLEM SOLUTION EXPERT GURU RISHIRAJSHARMA JI +91-9462257091

Vashikaran Mantras from Pandit jee and your all love problems will be resolved gradually. He gives you the mantra through which you can control your wife, lover or ex love. Also he has ____)()____-CAN ANY TIME OF QUICK RESULT ))) 101% RESPONE ____IN ONE…

Love Breakup Problem Solution

->> Hi i am astrologer any problem solution.... website…>> https://lovebreakupproblemsolution.in :-love problem solution :-husband wife dispute problem solution :-girl love problem solution :-breakup love problem solution :-family problem solution…

Crazy and Wild Lovemaking with Beautiful Chandigarh Escorts

Chandigarh Escorts are here in your service to make your life beautiful. Beautiful call girls in Chandigarh are very sexy to make love with. Let me tell you, these girls are not easily getable but you are fortunate enough to make love with them. People…

Bring back my lover spells/traditional healer Gaborone,Ghanzi,Masunga +27748333182 Botswana

Powerful love spell caster Baba John  a Psychic clairvoyant lost spells caster (spiritual healer) bring back permanently  USA ,Call or whats Baba John   +27748333182  spell for lost love, spell to return a lost love ,attraction spells red candle spells,…

CALL GIRLS IN MAJNU-KA-TILLA {8447779280 } SHOT 1500 NIGHT 5500

Call Girls Delhi CALL 8447779280 FEMALE SERVICE PROVIDER☆☆☆TIMINGS 24 HOURS OPENS☆☆☆We Are One Of The Oldest Escort Agencies in Delhi. You Will Find That Our Female Escorts Are Full Of Fun, Sexy And They Would Love & Enjoy Your Company. We Have A…

Call Girls In Paharganj 9599538384 Escorts ServiCe In Delhi Ncr

Call Girls In Paharganj 9599538384 Door Step Delivery Top Quality Full Educated and Full Cooperative Independent Girls Escort ServiCes In All Over Delhi, Gurgaon, Faridabad, Noida, Ghaziabad I Have Extremely Beautiful Broad Minded Cute Sexy & Hot Call…

Benefits Of Automatic Bagging Machines

What are Automatic Bagging Machines?     An Automatic Bagging Machine is a mechanism that automates the packaging process in production. The packaging machine automatically inserts the product in a bag or a pouch and seals it. By installing Automatic…

DR GUGU +27639913801 SAFE ABORTION PILLS IN PORT SHEPSTONE. PORT EDWARD. MOOI RIVER. STANGER

Women`s Clinic is an expert in Abortion, Sexual problems, a nd reproductive health .It is therefore among the leadingWomen's Abortion Clinic in South Africa with an experience of over 10 years Specializing in Medical Abortions which is a safe and…

Seven Reasons Why You Shouldn't Rely On Male Power Booster Anymore

I have been talking a lot relating to Far East XL even though I suspect that inspires you to take your Male Muscle Booster to the next level. Permit me get you updated on Hyper XXL. Golly gee wilikers! Honestly, I discover one of the best systems is to…

DR GUGU +27639913801 SAFE ABORTION PILLS IN EDENBURG. EXCELSIOR. FICKSBURG. FOURIESBURG

Women`s Clinic is an expert in Abortion, Sexual problems, a nd reproductive health .It is therefore among the leading( Women's Abortion Clinic in South Africa with an experience of over 10 years Specializing in Medical Abortions which is a safe and…

Amil baba in Lahore kala jadu for love marriage kala jadu

Syed Bahadar Ali Shah +923009729485 Manpasand Shadi, Manpasand shadi UK, Manpasand shadi ka taweez, Manpasand shadi ka wazifa, Manpasand shadi ki dua, Man Pasand shadi UK, Free Online istikhara, Inami possibility, Kala jadu ka taweez, Kala jadu ka toor,…

Call Girls In Delhi !+91-9999239489 Call Girls In Mahipalpur

WHATSAPP Deepak: ? ? ? 9999239489 ? ? ? Bookings NOW Call me Deepak+91-9999239489 Hello Sir Chut Service Mein Aapka Swagat Hai.. BUDGET CALL GIRLS IN DELHI, BOOKING FOR NOW -!! 9999239489 !!- DELHI ESCORTS SHORT///NIGHT Delhi Escorts Service – An All Over…

Call Girls In Chhatarpur 8800861635 Escorts ServiCe In Delhi Ncr

Call Girls In Chhatarpur 8800861635 Door Step Delivery Top Quality Full Educated and Full Cooperative Independent Girls Escort ServiCes In All Over Delhi, Gurgaon, Faridabad, Noida, Ghaziabad I Have Extremely Beautiful Broad Minded Cute Sexy & Hot Call…

Powerful Traditional Healer In Durban Call/Whatsapp +27719852628

+27719852628 Call / Whatsapp GREAT SKILLS FROM EXPERIENCE AND POWERFUL NATURAL FORCES FROM THE FORE FATHERS WITH AND PRIVATE READINGS FOR CONSULTATIONS AND HEALING WHENEVER YOU ARE TO ENABLE YOU TAKE CONTROL OF YOUR DESTINY.CALL, THE GREATEST RECONFIGURED…

UNLIVALLIED SIZE ,27793478685#Penis enlargement cream //PILLS Pinetown new Germany Queensburgh Tongaat durban

UNLIVALLIED SIZE ,27793478685#Penis enlargement cream //PILLS Pinetown new Germany Queensburgh Tongaat durban

Call Girls In Mahipalpur Aero City 8800861635 Escorts ServiCe In Delhi Ncr

Call Girls In Mahipalpur Aero City 8800861635 Door Step Delivery Top Quality Full Educated and Full Cooperative Independent Girls Escort ServiCes In All Over Delhi, Gurgaon, Faridabad, Noida, Ghaziabad I Have Extremely Beautiful Broad Minded Cute Sexy &…

Call Girls In Mukharjee Nagar 9599538384 Escorts ServiCe In Delhi Ncr

Call Girls In Mukharjee Nagar 9599538384 Door Step Delivery Top Quality Full Educated and Full Cooperative Independent Girls Escort ServiCes In All Over Delhi, Gurgaon, Faridabad, Noida, Ghaziabad I Have Extremely Beautiful Broad Minded Cute Sexy & Hot…

+27634531308 Genuine Lottery& Money Spells That WORK in Alexandra Johannesburg Lenasia Midrand Roodepoort Sandton Soweto

Lottery Spells That Work Fast | Lottery Money Spells | Powerful Lottery Spells If you are really tired of the constant money problems that seem never to end, if you are tired of paying rent, mortgages, insurance expenses then my lottery spells that work…

Where to buy StrictionBP Supplement – Know it then Invest it

One time solution for all the problems is what people want but to gain something one has to give something as well. Now to get saved from the root of all diseases i.e., blood pressure, sugar levels etc. You may ask Where to buy StrictionBP Supplement?…

Report this ad