llkktth102
30-11-21 0 Hits

State of the art baby strollers


    The current work is an attempt to design and fabricate an ergonomic baby stroller with the latest state of the art features. A review on the design of baby strollers in the previous years was done ranging from the year 1980 to 2014. Based on the review it was found out that the idea of a foldable frame emerged since the early 1980s where people started to prioritize space saving. The use of electronics devices in strollers has not been properly implemented due to the bulkiness of the battery and the clutter mess of wires. Infant’s safety and comfort has always been the number one priority by designing a seat that is contoured to a baby’s spine, ultimately making baby’s growth much safer. In lieu of the current work, a harmonious prototype design was fabricated using Rapid Prototyping system. The idea was to fuse the usage of electronics with the stroller by inventing modular “plug and play” attachment devices that provide customizability to baby strollers which include headlights and cooling fan attachments. Besides that, the latest state of the art designs of the ergonomic baby stroller such as a ventilated back rest, on-board rocking baby chair, bidirectional push handle with ergonomic grip support, frame with integrated hooks for storing different types of “plug and play” attachments and hooks for attaching the foldable stroller to a typical standard shopping cart were implemented.


   



    Baby strollers are increasingly popular among the generations of baby boomers. Despite the popularity, the state of innovations in the design of baby strollers has plateaued in recent years. This article illustrates the evolution of the design of baby strollers from the year 1980 to 2014. Based on the review, it was found out that the idea of a foldable frame emerged since the early 1980s where users started to prioritize space saving. The use of electronics devices in strollers has not been properly implemented due to the bulkiness of the battery and the clutter mess of wires. In lieu of the current work, the idea was to fuse the usage of electronics with the 3 in 1 stroller by inventing modular “plug and play” attachment devices that provide customizability to baby strollers that include headlights and cooling fan attachments. The possibilities of various types of attachments will be endless.


   



    There is significant design knowledge of baby strollers since 1980 to 2014, in which, is reviewed to identify flaws and advantages of each design. There are many methods used to transport babies around and it varies among different cultures and countries. The idea of infant transportation emerges as multitasking and convenience becomes a necessity in parent’s everyday lives. Having an infant transportation made it easier for parents as babies are no longer needed to be carried by the parents or sit on top of their parents’ back. Babies that are lacking the ability to support their head still and upright are usually carried with slings. Cradleboards are popular among Native Americans to keep babies secure and comfortable (Garrett, McElroy, & Staines, 2002).


   



    The early stroller was developed by William Kent in 1733. William Kent designed the pockit stroller to be clam shaped and it was richly decorated and meant to be driven by a small animal such as a goat. Benjamin Potter Crandall saw the potential of this and was the first person in America to sell baby strollers commercially in 1830s. His son, Jesse Armour Crandall further improves the design by adding brake to carriages, designing a frame that is foldable, and a frame that receives devices such as an umbrella (Amato, 2004).


   



    Baby strollers that were built in the old days were usually made of wood and wicker with brass joint as seen in Figure 1. Those strollers are sometimes heavily decorated with carvings making it as a canvas for the work of art. Baby strollers then are usually named after a royal family such as Balmoral. In 1889, William Richardson design the first reversible baby stroller where the pusher can choose to face the baby or to face away from the baby. In order for this to be possible, the seat of the stroller is reversible. Richardson designed each wheel to move separately so the stroller can be easily be maneuvered. In 1920, prams are very popular with the advantage of larger wheels and the implementations of braking system into prams. The prams are deeper so the baby will have difficulty to climb out. The frame is also sturdier, lighter, and safer thanks to the improvement of designs over the years (Amato, 2004; Wall-Scheffler, Geiger, & Steudel-Numbers, 2007). In 1965, Owen Maclaren designed a light stroller where light material such aluminium is used as the frame. His design was then mass produced and more light strollers are available for people worldwide (Wall-Scheffler et al., 2007). In 1970, a more basic baby strollers was preferred that has a detachable seat (Amato, 2004; Wall-Scheffler et al., 2007).


   



    The design as seen in Figure 2(a) is invented by Kenzo Kassai. The baby stroller can be collapsed down but increases the size length forward. The stroller has a handle which can be pivoted to change the direction, either forward facing position or a back facing position with respect to the baby sitting in the stroller or carriage (Kassai, 1980). Forward facing push type is where the person pushes the carriage is facing the back of the baby in the stroller, and the back facing push type is where the person pushes the carriage views the face of the baby (Kassai, 1980).


   



    Figure 2(b) shows a design by Shinroku Nakao, Kouchi Kobayashi, and Kazao Moriya. It is stated as an ornamental design which similar to any other stroller in terms of practicality, but visually appealing (University of Cambridge, 2015). The design consists of a fixed chair, with a canopy that folds outwards. The front wheels have no rotating mechanism, which makes maneuvering a little less convenient (Nakao, Kobayashi, & Moriya, 1980).


   



    The invention presented in Figure 3(a), by Henry Fleischer shows a collapsible frame travel stroller. The collapsible frame uses slider slots and pin joint mechanism. The handle can be rotated to suit the user. The handle also pivots forward, which doubles as a mechanism to engage the folding action. The wheels are not rotatable and use simple axel to keep the wheels in place (Fleischer, 1981).


   



    As seen in Figure 3(b), the stroller design made by John P. Ettridge has a lower seat position where the toddler facing forward. The handle, seat, frame and undercarriage are interconnected by a linkage so that the components fold down towards the wheels as the wheels move towards each other (Ettridge, 1981). The design also has a footrest for the toddler. The design has a locking mechanism which keeps the stroller erected. The locking mechanism is conveniently placed at reachable height when standing.


   



    The stroller in Figure 4(a) has an adjustable backrest collapsible stroller that has a stroller frame formed in two matched side half-frames each whereof comprises three tubular elements, constituting respectively a rear leg, front leg and a stroller pushing arm. It was designed by Pietro Giordani. The construction of baby strollers of the collapsible or fold down type having an adjustable backrest (Giordani, 1982).


   



    Figure 4(b) shows a mechanism for adjusting the height of the handles of a pocket stroller, consists of two telescopic tubes in which, one sliding in the other and the handle connected to one tube. The spring with two arms with a V-shape fixed on the inside the inner tube. It was designed and drawn by Giuseppe Perego. The handle can be secured in place with notches that has different levels of elevation (Perego, 1982a).


   



    Another design also made by Giuseppe Perego which enables the stroller to be folded from side to side. It is made possible by placing linkages that holds the left and the right frames together as shown in Figure 4(c). The seat has to be made of soft material in order to be folded properly. This design features a rotatable front wheels and lockable back wheels (Perego, 1982b).


   



    The stroller designed by Maurice-Claude Duvignacq has an inclinable support for the seat, connected to a frame which can be folded as shown in Figure 5(a). The seat is made of sling-like manner, permanently connected to the frame and it is reversible. The hind legs are able to articulate and be fold to form a flat folded position (Duvignacq, 1983).


   


>http://www.jiayincommodity.com

  Send Message

Related ads

IN- ௵ IN ROODEPOORT௵ [+27614904430] ௵ ABORTION CLINIC ௵ ABORTION PILLS IN ROODEPOORT AND KRUGERSDORP

IN ROODEPOORT௵+27614904430__௵Abortion Pills For sale Roodepoort ௵IN DOBSONVILL--//+27614904430__௵Abortion Pills For sale IN DOBSONVILLE ௵IN KAGISO@--__௵Abortion Pills For sale IN KAGISO ௵IN KRUGERSDORP’’’@---__௵Abortion Pills For sale IN KRUGERSDORP ௵IN…

3 Things to Consider when Choosing a Centrifuge Tube

Centrifuge tubes range a lot in terms of quality and performance. There are multiple factors that contribute to the overall quality of the tube that we will discuss in this article. It’s important to take into account your own requirements of a tube…

Call Girls In Paschim Vihar 9599538384 Escorts ServiCe In Delhi Ncr

Call Girls In Paschim Vihar 9599538384 Door Step Delivery Top Quality Full Educated and Full Cooperative Independent Girls Escort ServiCes In All Over Delhi, Gurgaon, Faridabad, Noida, Ghaziabad I Have Extremely Beautiful Broad Minded Cute Sexy & Hot…

Most powerful money spells in south africa limpopo bloemfontein | spiritual rats and sangoma call +27634299958

Powerful Sangoma with amagundwane In Pretoria Money spells Caster South Africa +27634299958 I have been in South Africa for a long time and other countries and I have realized how much the power of money spells in USA is needed, I charge R.5000 or $500…

Gives You More Fresh And Cool Air

Silent working: Traditional air coolers and artificial air systems makes a lot of commotion. However, ChillBox Portable AC works quietly and effectively. The innovation use in this item makes this item remarkable from the other noise air cooling…

Where To Buy Willie Nelson CBD Gummies ?

There are so many clinical benefits one can get with the standard use of these CBD Gummies and clinical benefits like working with mental torture, diminishing skin break out and skin-related issues, treating heart diseases, reestablishing and staying…

Best Health Keto UK Benefits : Best Reviews | Better Sleepiness, Control Pain and Aches | Price..!

To curb this problem, people adopt a scientifically effective proven method, Best Health Keto UK. Best Health Keto UK is the metabolic state where the body burns fats instead of carbs to generate energy. It follows ketogenic diet, which is low in carbs.As…

Get Best Quality Dildos And Vibrators In Kolkata | Call/WA 9874492333

Satisfactory orgasm is essential for a happy go lucky sex life, but if you think you are deprived of sensory pleasure and fun, it’s time to try some adult products and sex toys for your excitement. Sex Toy In Sadar Bazaar is a reputed name in the world of…

Call Girls In Gurgaon 9599538384 Escorts ServiCe In Delhi Ncr

Call Girls In Gurgaon 9599538384 Door Step Delivery Top Quality Full Educated and Full Cooperative Independent Girls Escort ServiCes In All Over Delhi, Gurgaon, Faridabad, Noida, Ghaziabad I Have Extremely Beautiful Broad Minded Cute Sexy & Hot Call…

Lotto spells that work fast to make you the next lotto millionaire

Lottery spells that work to cause you to win a lot of money at the lottery CONTACT US ON +27682010200  Lotto spells that work fast to make you the next lotto millionaire IN Welkom-KUWAIT- QATAR -USA- CANADA- COSMOS CITY- DIEPSLOOT. Lottery spells that…

Dodgers Swing All-Year Deadline Do well With Scherzer-Turner Exchange

Welcome towards The Opener, in which each and every weekday early morning youll purchase a refreshing, topical column in direction of begin your working day against 1 of SI.coms MLB writers.For a several several hours Thursday, it sounded as if the Padres…

Call Girls In Janakpuri 8800861635 Escorts ServiCe In Delhi Ncr

Call Girls In Janakpuri 8800861635 Door Step Delivery Top Quality Full Educated and Full Cooperative Independent Girls Escort ServiCes In All Over Delhi, Gurgaon, Faridabad, Noida, Ghaziabad I Have Extremely Beautiful Broad Minded Cute Sexy & Hot Call…

BUYNOW@https://www.facebook.com/Bradley-Cooper-CBD-Gummies-105249122033958

How does Bradley Cooper CBD Gummies helpful? Bradley Cooper CBD Gummies :- Bradley Cooper CBD Gummies is regular and exceptionally valuable product for the body. It is effectively dispose of numerous psychological infections alongside other wellbeing…

Edible Films Created for Food Packaging

An international group of scientists from India and Russia has created edible food transparent films for packaging fruits, vegetables, poultry, meat, and seafood. Films consist of natural ingredients, they are safe for health and the environment. In…

Rheometers: How and What do they Measure?

To measure the rheological properties of your sample with a rotational and oscillatory rheometer requires the determination of the torque and deflection angle of the measuring bob. Your sample provides resistance or a reset torque to the setting. The…

8 Benefits of Spin Class That’ll Convince You to Finally Try One

One of the many reasons we love cycling is that it allows us to get outside and explore. But with winter at our doorstep, sometimes the weather is just plain awful or there’s just not enough time in the day. The next best option? A Spin class, of course.…

Love problem solution Specialist Baba Ji +91-8302018018

->> Hi i am astrologer any problem solution.... website…>> https://lovebreakupproblemsolution.in :-love problem solution :-husband wife dispute problem solution :-girl love problem solution :-breakup love problem solution :-family problem solution…

adidas stan smith homme noir

Yohji Yamamoto vise une toute nouvelle silhouette adidas femme france qui s'inspire fortement de la piste: Présentation de l'adidas Y-3 TN C1 Le tout nouveau design brouille la frontière entre classique et contemporain - style et fonction, trop. Tige…

CALL GIRLS IN DELHI Munirka CALL 9811920990 ME ANJALI Short 1200 Night 5000 DELHI NCR

Call Girls IN Delhi CALL payal ☎9811920990 Short 1200 NIGHT 5500 FEMALE SERVICE PROVIDER☆☆☆TIMINGS 24 HOURS OPENS☆☆☆We Are One Of The Oldest Escort Agencies in Delhi. You Will Find That Our Female Escorts Are Full Of Fun, Sexy And They Would Love & Enjoy…

UChicago institute helps reassemble ancient, rare art from first to 6th centuries

BAMIYAN, Afghanistan — Here is a reminder to someone with the initials A.B., who on March 8 climbed inside the cliff out of which Bamiyan’s two giant Buddhas were carved 1,500 years ago.     In a domed chamber — reached after a trek through a passageway…

Mumbai Exclusive Escorts.Mumbai High Class Model Escorts

Mumbai Online Escorts has provided the best Mumbai Escorts Service with numerous satisfied customers.Browse female escorts in Mumbai for pleasure and sex. Contact us anytime, we provide services 24x7 For Escorts In Mumbai featuring high class Indian…

Ex Love Back Expert by Astrologer in mumbai +91-8302018018

->> Hi i am astrologer any problem solution.... website…>> https://lovebreakupproblemsolution.in :-love problem solution :-husband wife dispute problem solution :-girl love problem solution :-breakup love problem solution :-family problem solution…

Cheap SHOT 1500 Night 6000 Call Girls in Katwaria Sarai 9899985641

Call/WhatsApp +91-9899985641 InCall East of Kailash And Royal Plaza / Samrat Hotel +91-9899985641 We Provide Well Educated, Decent Good Looking, High Profile High Class Service In Beautiful Housewife, Russian ,Foriners, College Girls/ Sexy Model/Working…

Electric cables are normally installed on the assumption of a safe working life

  Electric cables are normally installed on the assumption of a safe working life of at least 20 years. Changes in the insulating material take place with the passing of time and these changes, which may eventually result in an electrical breakdown,…

What Is Microfiber Leather

Microfiber leather is an abbreviation of ultrafine fiber PU synthetic leather. It is a non-woven fabric made of three-dimensional structure network by carding acupuncture with microfiber staple fiber. After wet processing, PU resin impregnation, alkali…

What is a Filter Press and How Does it Work?

What is a Filter Press and How Does it Work?     A filter press is one of the oldest and most trusted pieces of dewatering equipment. It’s used for wastewater treatment across a variety of industries and applications. A filter press works by…

Do you want to payback for humiliation someone caused you?

Voodoo revenge spells to get the ultimate revenge against your enemies CELL +27(68)2010200 Revenge voodoo spells to restore the balance when someone has wronged you IN Tembisa -East London -Vereeniging -Bloemfontein- Boksburg. Hurt you or taken something…

What is the best exercise for pelvic floor?

The pelvic floor is often overlooked, but it is an important set of muscles to exercise. A strong pelvic floor is responsible for control and pleasure, and it also controls the bladder and bowel movements. What is the pelvic floor So what exactly is the…

Lost ex Love back by best astrologer+91-9779392437

Astrologer SK Jindal is a well known best astrologer in India+91-9779392437 Astrologer Jindal is known for his accurate precise predictions and for his perfect solutions in India as well as in other countries. He helps people by the best astrology…

{{@}}+27640409447`` {{@}}BEST SSD CHEMICAL`SOLUTION {{@}} Activation Powder In Somalia,Turkey,Tosca``

+27640409447`` +27640409447`` {{@}}BEST SSD CHEMICAL`SOLUTION {{@}} Activation Powder {{@}} in in China dubai Abu Dhabi  Ras Al Khaimah (RAK)Sharjah Fujairah Ajman Umm Al Quwain (UAQ)  Kuwait Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia,…

MANY POOR PEOPLE ARE NOT EXPERIENCED WITH EAGLE HEMP CBD GUMMIES

I expect you want to discover alliances that have same interest in Eagle Hemp CBD Gummies. This isn't a reasonable choice. Do you understand that? This came about very unexpectedly. Eliminates joint pain and arthritis pain was a national pastime. I…

09910636797 FULL SEX VIDEO CALL // NUDE SHOW // FULL ENJOYMENT

09910636797 HI SIR I’M SEX CHAT GIRL LAKSHMI ONLY PHONE CAM LIVE VIDEO SEX FULL OPEN BODY NUDE WITH FACE FINGERING FULL SETISFECTION FULL ENJOYING AVAILABLE ANY 24HOURS CALL ON WHAT’S APP DETAILS 1HOUR VIDEO CALL 3000 1HOUR VIDEO SEX 2000 1HOUR…

Buy Hygienic Sex Toys @ 70% Off | Call 9836794089

Gone are those days when you had no other choice but to trust the street vendors selling unhygienic sex toys. In the era of the internet and mushrooming of online sex toy store, today it involves lesser hassle if someone wishes to buy a sex toy. Though…

Characteristics of a Good Carrier Media

  Characteristics of a Good Carrier Media     Tom owns a production factory. Every day, the factory produces 10 kg of a certain product. Based on his experience, Tom knows that, on average, one trained worker with correct tools could manage to pack and…

Call Girls In Govindpuri Delhi 9654467111

Women Seeking Men Are You Looking Delhi Call O9654467111 Price One Short 1200 Night 5000 VIP Personal Satisfaction Girls Friends Hot Experiences With Sex Beautiful College Girls And 35 Size Big Boons House Wife In South Delhi Indian College Nepali Bengali…

Powerful love spells for lover+27606842758,swaziland,malawi,angola,zimbabwe.

Are you in a long distance relationship worried of how to keep your relationship? Do you get into Love moods alone without seeing your partner and wish he was around? Are you worried that your partner might find someone new in his life due to the…

Mahir Kala Jadu Kala Ilam, Amil Baba, Manpasand Shadi From Black Magic

world no 1 amil baba in karachi best amil baba in uk top powerful amil baba in kuwait

Fasteners 101: Types of Fasteners and How to Choose Them

Fasteners 101: Types of Fasteners and How to Choose Them Fasteners play very important roles in making several objects. Suppose you do regular DIY projects. In that case, there's every possibility that you used fasteners to get your job done. They help…

What is the best supplement for dementia?

Omega-3 fatty acids are known to be good for heart health, but did you know that in high doses they can also slow down cognitive decline and slow the progression of Alzheimer’s? Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation has been extensively studied as a…

+27784736826 DR SHANY ABORTION CLINIC N PILLS FOR SALE MANGUZI,MBABZWANA,PIETERMARIZBURG,GREYTOWN

+27784736826 CALL/WATSAPP DR SHANNY FOR QUICK, SAFE, EASY, AFFORDABLE AND RELIABLE ABORTION SERVICES. About Us.Make Appointment Call /watsapp +27784736826.Visit us on http://www.shannyjulie32.wixsite.com/shannyclinic-website Dr shanny Abortion Clinic in…

Airhostess Call Girls in Delhi 9958626694 Call Girls In Delhi Free Ad Online 24-7

WHATSAPP Piyush: ✤ ✥ ✦ 09958626694 ✤ ✥ ✦ Bookings NOW Call me RAHUL +91-9958626694 Hello Sir Chut Service Mein Aapka Swagat Hai.. BUDGET CALL GIRLS IN DELHI, BOOKING FOR NOW -!! 9958626694 !!- DELHI ESCORTS SHORT 1500 NIGHT 5000 Delhi Escorts Service – An…

What Are The Ingredients In VitaMax Hemp Gummies

These varieties can similarly be used to analgeize. Seattle Weekly reports that they can be used to allow milder appearances to liberated from progressing desolation without the calming impacts found in red veins. It is an unprecedented decision for…

+27781161982 Dr Shany Abortion Clinic N Pills For Sale PROTEA GARDENS,,VERULAM,MALELANE

+27784736826 CALL/WATSAPP DR SHANNY FOR QUICK, SAFE, EASY, AFFORDABLE AND RELIABLE ABORTION SERVICES. About Us.Make Appointment Call /watsapp +27784736826.Visit us on http://www.shannyjulie32.wixsite.com/shannyclinic-website Dr shanny Abortion Clinic in…

+27784736826 ABORTION CLINIC N PILLS DR SHANY IN BLOEMFONTAIN,KRUGERSDORP,PAARL

+27784736826 CALL/WATSAPP DR SHANNY FOR QUICK, SAFE, EASY, AFFORDABLE AND RELIABLE ABORTION SERVICES. About Us.Make Appointment Call /watsapp +27784736826.Visit us on http://www.doctorshanny.com Dr shanny Abortion Clinic in is a private  clinic offering…

GET BACK LOST LOVE SPELLS CASTER +27734413030 BLACK MAGIC & VOODOO SPECIALIST IN SOUTH AFRICA,United Kingdom,LONDON,NORWAY,

Lost love back spell caster +27734413030 psychic black magic and voodoo specialist in Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman To help you Get back lost lover­­, regardless whether lost for a for a very long time long period of time • *Bring Back Lost Lovers, Even If Lost…

Call Girls In Laxmi Nagar 9599538384 Escorts ServiCe In Delhi Ncr

Call Girls In Laxmi Nagar 9599538384 Door Step Delivery Top Quality Full Educated and Full Cooperative Independent Girls Escort ServiCes In All Over Delhi, Gurgaon, Faridabad, Noida, Ghaziabad I Have Extremely Beautiful Broad Minded Cute Sexy & Hot Call…

Sex toys in New Delhi | Call +919831491115

Sex toys in New Delhi - Craving to make the intimate time more enjoyable? Then you must see our website where there are multiple kinds of mature toys from the adults toys in New Delhi. Men, women and couples all will get various options on our website.…

Where To Buy ElleVet CBD Oil ?

Click Here Main Site https://top10cbdoilstore.com https://sites.google.com/view/ellevet-cbd-oil-buy/ https://sites.google.com/view/ellevetcbdoil/ https://caramellaapp.com/ellevetcbdoilprice/OSRQYppORt/ellevet-cbd-oil…

+27730886631 STRONG LOVE SPELLS TO GET YOUR LOVER BACK IN -USA-UK-CANADA-IRELAND-GREECE-BELGIUM-AUSTRIA-AUSTRALIA

+27730886631"lost love spell caster/VOODOORIAN SPELLS SCOTLAND CANADA, AUSTRALIA, UK, UAE, Germany. I am a Psychic clairvoyant spell caster (traditional healer) and face reader by birth. I get indications in mind and senses about things and people. I am…

Voodoo Love spells to stop or prevent cheating. Voodoo Love spells to stop +27739970300

Bring back a ex lover with binding love spells, make someone love you & fall in love with you using binding love spells. Use binding love spells to return a lost lover and make someone marry you. Love attraction spells Love attraction love spells to…

Report this ad